Compare Different Legal Entity Formats In Indonesia

When you conduct business in Indonesia there are various options for setting up a legal entity. Most common is to register a limited liability company (PT PMA) but there are also alternatives in case your capital is limited or you can handle transactions via a foreign entity. Table of contents Most common legal entity formats […]

Comparison of different legal entities in Indonesia

Legal entity in IndonesiaWhen you conduct business in Indonesia there are various options for setting up a legal entity. Most common is to register a limited liability company (PT PMA) but there are also alternatives in case your capital is limited or you can handle transactions via a foreign entity.

Table of contents

    Most common legal entity formats in Indonesia

    TypeLimited Liability Company with Foreign Direct Investment Local limited liability companyRepresentative officeRepresentative office for trading
    Indonesian abbreviation

    PT PMA

    PT

    KPPA

    K3PA

    Allowed activitiesCan conduct all business activities within the business field it got approval forCan conduct all business activities within the business field it got approval forMarket researchLocal representationLocal representation
    Best option forForeign companies and investors looking for full or partial ownership in a company operating in IndonesiaLocal investors who are not involving any foreign shareholders
    • Foreign companies studying the market
    • Foreign companies who don’t need to earn revenue from Indonesia
    Foreign trading companies that don’t need to earn revenue to their Indonesian entity
    Foreign ownership restrictionForeign ownership can be anything from 0% to 100% depending on the business classification. Classifications that are not in Negative Investment List can be owned 100%.
    • Cannot have foreign shareholders.
    • Limited amount of work permits for foreigners depending on size of capital
    No restrictionsNo restrictions
    Minimum capitalInvestment plan: Minimum $1.2 million USD.Paid-up capital: at least 25% of investment plan.For some industries required capital is higher.Micro: Less than Rp.50 million
    Small:Rp. 50 – 500 millionMedium: Rp. 500 – 10 billionLarge: above 10 billion
    No capital requirementNo capital requirement
    Key benefitsCan operate fully as an independent limited liability company within the business classificationSmaller capital requirement and faster process as long as no foreign shareholders are involved.
    • No capital requirement
    • Easiest way to have a legal presence in Indonesia
     License can always be extended every 3 years
    Key disadvantages
    • Large capital requirement
    • Ownership restricted or forbidden in some industries
    No foreign shareholders
    • Cannot seek or earn revenue in Indonesia
    • Valid for maximum 5 years, and cannot be extended
     Not allowed to earn any revenue
    Issuing work permits and visas for foreigners
    • All shareholders, directors and commissioners eligible for work permit
    • Unlimited amount of business visa sponsorships
    • Work permits can be issued to foreign experts
    • Only Medium Size PT can apply work permit for its foreign worker
    • Unlimited amount of business visa sponsorships
    • Work permit for the chief representative
    • Unlimited business visa sponsorships
    • 3 Indonesians for every foreigner hired
    • Work permit for the chief representative
    • Unlimited business visa sponsorships
    • 3 Indonesians for every foreigner hired
    Additional licenses required
    • Permanent Business License from BKPM
    • Import license for importers
    • Additional operating licenses  needed for some industries
    • Import license for importers
    • Additional operating licenses for some industries
    • Representative office needs to be extended every 3 years
    Compliance
    • Monthly withholding tax report
    • Quarterly/semi-annual investment reporting
    • Annual tax reporting
    • Monthly withholding tax report
    • Annual tax reporting
    • Monthly withholding tax report
    • Annual Activity report to BKPM
    • Monthly withholding tax report
    • Annual Activity report to BKPM
    Time to register

    ~10 weeks

    ~8 weeks

    ~6 weeks

    ~6 weeks

    Set up with Emerhub

    PT PMA company registration 

    Buat PT

    Representative office

    Representative office 

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